Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein made the announcement, as Attorney General Jeff Session has recused himself from any investigations into Russian interference, having been an advocate of Trump during the campaign.
That said, if the involvement of the GRU officers in the hacking effort is proven, it would shatter the Kremlin denials of the Russian state's involvement in USA elections.
The White House on Friday stressed that the 11-count, 29-page indictment said that no Americans knew they were communicating with Russians.
Some researchers said the indictment might have depended on US signals intelligence, the fruits of which are rarely revealed, because it quotes electronic messages sent to an unidentified organization presumed to be London-based WikiLeaks.
In addition to contact with WikiLeaks, several people reached out to Guccifer 2.0 in August 2016 soliciting access to the stolen documents, the indictment says.
In addition to releasing to documents to the public, the defendants also transferred the documents to another organization.
Rosenstein said he briefed President Donald Trump on the charges earlier in the week.
The indictments were filed by Special Prosecutor Robert Mueller, who is investing possible collusion between the presidential campaign of President Donald Trump and the Russian spies USA intelligence agencies say interfered with the 2016 election.
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The defendants, according to the indictment, were specifically involved in the effort to hack Clinton campaign chairman John Podesta.
"The goal of the conspirators was to have an impact on the election", he added.
U.S. intelligence agencies have said the meddling was aimed at helping the Trump campaign and harming the election bid of his Democratic opponent, Hillary Clinton. They created fictitious personas including Guccifer 2.0 and DC Leaks.
Trump has subsequently said he was speaking in jest. They used this to falsely claim to be a single Romanian hacker who broke into the Democrat-run systems.
DNC Chair Tom Perez said the latest indictments show the magnitude of the Russian operation.
Hours before the Justice Department announcement, Trump complained anew that the special counsel's investigation is complicating his efforts to forge a better working relationship with Russian Federation. "It's long past time for him and his allies in the Republican Party to stop ignoring this urgent threat to our national security".
There are two main intelligence agencies in Russian Federation, the GRU and Sluzhba Vneshnei Razvedki (SVR), according to The Journal of Defense Management.
According to Rosenstein, the GRU officers "hacked the website of a state election board, and stole information of about 500,000 voters".
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