The monetary policy committee of the bank said the one-week repo rate was being lifted to 24 percent from 17.75 percent, the first rate hike since June.
Neil Wilson, chief market analyst at Markets.com said: "This was a definite statement from policymakers, but the risk now is that the market tries to test the central bank's resolve: the horse may have already bolted".
It said: "Accordingly, the committee has chose to implement a strong monetary tightening to support price stability".
Thursday's decree and Erdogan's remarks come after the lira's drastic fall in value against the USA dollar last month, during one of the worst diplomatic rows between North Atlantic Treaty Organisation allies Washington and Ankara.
A "tight stance in monetary policy will be maintained decisively until inflation outlook displays a significant improvement", it added.
Erdoğan has always been pressuring the bank to keep interest rates low to encourage economic growth.
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The lira hit new lows in late July after the Turkish central bank left interest rates unchanged as inflation continued to rise.
In a speech to a traders' confederation in the capital, Ankara, Mr Erdogan said on Thursday that nobody should carry out business in foreign currency apart from exporters and importers.
The bank´s intervention was the latest aggressive rate hike to calm economic turbulence in an emerging market after the Argentinian central bank´s recent hike from 45 to 60 percent on August 30. "If you say "inflation is cause, the rate is the result", you do not know this business, friend", he added.
All 11 economists in a Reuters poll forecast the bank would tighten, but with the rate hike predictions ranging between 225-725 basis points as the bank balances concerns over lira weakness with worries about an economic slowdown.
Its decision came despite Erdogan repeating his opposition to high interest rates earlier in the day, saying high inflation was a result of the central bank's wrong steps.
The bank later said on Twitter that funding would be provided via the policy rate, the one week repo auction rate, instead of through overnight lending from September 14.
The lira has plunged in recent weeks on concerns over domestic policymaking and a crisis in relations with the United States.
"Great decision - made all the more hard by the huge pressure on the central bank from Erdogan", said Bluebay Asset Management LLC strategist Tim Ash.
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